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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol Ii Mon Khmer Siamese Chinese Families"

SYNTENG OR PNAR.
This dialect is spoken over the greater part of the east of the District of the Khasi
and Jaintia Hills, i.e., in the Jaintia country. The number of speakers is estimated to
he about 51,740. The following are the main points of difference between it and
Standard Khassi. The word ' Pnar' means' Dwellers of the Upper Hills' of the Jowai
sub-division of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills District.
The Vocabulary differs mainly in pronunciation. Thus, we have e for ait give;
mo for maw, stone; wi for wei, onei Iru for Inw, man; la-sili, for ba-sntw, had; Mdi
for Blei> God. There are not so many words peculiar to the dialect as in LyDg-ngarn.
With Bldi compare Lyng-ngam Bret, the War Prdi, and the Palaung Prd.
The PronUECiation is generally as in the Standard dialect, but attention must be
called to the fact that the standard ng is sometimes represented by nj. This nj is some-
times represented by the letter n. Thus, dinj or din, for the Standard ding, fire. This nj
or »is variously pronounced. Properly pronounced, it is a peculiar nasal, something like
n-ng, but in some localities, where the speakers * crunch' or e munch' their words (owing
to their habit of perpetually chewing betel), it has the sound of nj or nji (i.e., njy9 in
which y has the English consonantal sound, and not the vowel-sound of Khassi). As
explained abo^e, the specimens and list of words represent the sound in two ways.
The Order of words is not so strict as in Standard Kbassi. The pronoun which
indicates the subject of the verb quite commonly follows it instead of (or as well as)
preceding it, in this agreeing with the other dialects, but differing from the Standard.
As regards the Articles, they are the same as in the Standard dialect. It should,
however, be noted that the article * is frequently used, not in a diminutive, but in a
neuter sense, Thus, i-bJiah, the portion; ha i-tu i por, at that time,
NOUNS,—-The declension appears to be exactly the same as in the Standard dialect.
The same prepositions are used. Ie is often used instead of ia (War has ei).
iBJECTIVES,-The adjectival prefix, la, is the same as in the Standard.   The
following are examples of comparison,—
Ba-bhd,     good.
&ap~bhd,   better.
Bhd dull)   best.
Bha tarn is also used for the superlative, as in the Standard. The comparative
prefix rap also occurs in War.
PBOHOTJHS,—The Personal Pronouns are,—
Singular.                   Plural.
1st  Person      nga,   o              ngi,   I,
2nd Person       me,   mi            phi.
3rd Person       u     fern. Jca    hi.
The o of the first person very commonly means ' my.1 Thus, U lok o, my friends.
Similarly, in the second person, « p<tfa mi, thy brother. Again, for the third person,